Publications & Annual Reports

You can find below a list of recent publications. In accordance with the institutional requirements, we provide a more detailed annual report summarizing the activities of the NetQ unit for the given year. Reports from this unit can be found in the menu on the left, listed by fiscal year.

Since 2010, OIST provides web-based annual reports. These reports can be found on the OIST Graduate University's Publications and Reports page.


Schematics of the protocol for exploiting indefinite causal structure as resource for local implementation of nonlocal operations.
Quantum superposition of causal structures as a universal resource for local implementation of nonlocal quantum operations
Physical Review A 107, 022613 (2023)
P. Ghosal, A. Ghosal, D. Das, and A. G. Maity

Spatial separation restricts the set of locally implementable quantum operations on distributed multipartite quantum systems. We propose that indefinite causal structure arising due to quantum superposition of different space-time geometries can be used as an independent universal resource for local implementation of any quantum operation on spatially distributed quantum systems. Consequently, all such quantum tasks that are not accomplishable by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) only also become locally accomplishable. We show that exploiting indefinite causal structure as the sole resource, it is possible to perfectly teleport the state of one agent's subsystem to the other distant laboratory in such a way that the agent at the distant laboratory can have access to the whole initially shared state in his or her laboratory and can perform any global quantum operation on the joint state locally. We further find that, after the teleportation process, the resource—indefinite causal structure of the space-time does not get consumed. Hence, after implementing the desired quantum operation the state of the first agent's subsystem can be teleported back to its previous laboratory using the same resource. We show that this two-way teleportation is not always necessary for locally executing all nonlocal quantum tasks that are not realizable by LOCC only. Without invoking any kind of teleportation, we present a protocol for perfect local discrimination of the set of four Bell states that exploits indefinite causal structure as the sole resource. As immediate upshots, we present some more examples of such nonlocal tasks as local discrimination of the set of states exhibiting “quantum nonlocality without entanglement” and activation of bound entangled states that are also achievable by our proposed protocol incorporating indefinite causal structure as a resource.


Simulated performance of GHZ creation
Robust quantum-network memory based on spin qubits in isotopically engineered diamond
npj Quantum Information 8, 122 (2022)
C. E. Bradley, S. W. de Bone, P. F. W. Möller, S. Baier, M. J. Degen, S. J. H. Loenen, H. P. Bartling, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, R. Hanson, D. Elkouss and T. H. Taminiau

Quantum networks can enable quantum communication and modular quantum computation. A powerful approach is to use multi-qubit nodes that provide quantum memory and computational power. Nuclear spins associated with defects in diamond are promising qubits for this role. However, dephasing during optical entanglement distribution hinders scaling to larger systems. Here, we show that a 13C-spin quantum memory in isotopically engineered diamond is robust to the optical link operation of a nitrogen-vacancy centre. The memory lifetime is improved by two orders-of-magnitude upon the state-of-the-art, surpassing reported times for entanglement distribution. Additionally, we demonstrate that the nuclear-spin state can survive ionisation and recapture of the nitrogen-vacancy electron. Finally, we use simulations to show that combining this memory with previously demonstrated entanglement links and gates can enable key network primitives, such as deterministic non-local two-qubit gates, paving the way for test-bed quantum networks capable of investigating complex algorithms and error correction.

Quantum paper distillation protocol
Enumerating all bilocal Clifford distillation protocols through symmetry reduction
Quantum 6, 715 (2022)
S. Jansen, K. Goodenough, S. de Bone, D. Gijswijt, and D. Elkouss

Entanglement distillation is an essential building block in quantum communication protocols. Here, we study the class of near-term implementable distillation protocols that use bilocal Clifford operations followed by a single round of communication. We introduce tools to enumerate and optimise over all protocols for up to n=5 (not necessarily equal) Bell-diagonal states using a commodity desktop computer. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetries of the input states, we find all protocols for up to n=8 copies of a Werner state. For the latter case, we present circuits that achieve the highest fidelity with perfect operations and no decoherence. These circuits have modest depth and number of two-qubit gates. Our results are based on a correspondence between distillation protocols and double cosets of the symplectic group, and improve on previously known protocols.

Improved analytical bounds on delivery times of long-distance entanglement
Phys. Rev. A 105, 012608 (2022), editor's suggestion
T. Coopmans, S. Brand, and D. Elkouss

The ability to distribute high-quality entanglement between remote parties is a necessary primitive for many quantum communication applications. A large range of schemes for realizing the long-distance delivery of remote entanglement has been proposed, for both bipartite and multipartite entanglement. For assessing the viability of these schemes, knowledge of the time at which entanglement is delivered is crucial. Specifically, if the communication task requires multiple remote-entangled quantum states and these states are generated at different times by the scheme, the earlier states will need to wait and thus their quality will decrease while being stored in an (imperfect) memory. For the remote-entanglement delivery schemes which are closest to experimental reach, this time assessment is challenging, as they consist of nondeterministic components such as probabilistic entanglement swaps. For many such protocols even the average time at which entanglement can be distributed is not known exactly, in particular when they consist of feedback loops and forced restarts. In this work, we provide improved analytical bounds on the average and on the quantiles of the completion time of entanglement distribution protocols in the case that all network components have success probabilities lower bounded by a constant. A canonical example of such a protocol is a nested quantum repeater scheme which consists of heralded entanglement generation and entanglement swaps. For this scheme specifically, our results imply that a common approximation to the mean entanglement distribution time, the 3-over-2 formula, is in essence an upper bound to the real time. Our results rely on a novel connection with reliability theory.