Publications & Annual Reports

You can find below a list of recent preprints and publications. Link to publications and preprints: preprintspublications of the year 2023 and publications of the year 2022.

In accordance with the institutional requirements, we also provide a more detailed annual report summarizing the activities of the unit for the given year. The reports from this unit can be found in the menu on the left, listed by fiscal year. Annual report links: 2022 annual report.

Finally, since 2010, OIST provides a centralized site for the annual reports. These reports can be found on the OIST Graduate University's Annual Reports page. 


Connecting Quantum Cities: Simulation of a Satellite-Based Quantum Network
arXiv:2307.11606 (2023)
R. Yehia, M. Schiavon, V. Marulanda Acosta, T. Coopmans, I. Kerenidis, D. Elkouss, E. Diamanti

We present and analyse an architecture for a European-scale quantum network using satellite links to connect Quantum Cities, which are metropolitan quantum networks with minimal hardware requirements for the end users. Using NetSquid, a quantum network simulation tool based on discrete events, we assess and benchmark the performance of such a network linking distant locations in Europe in terms of quantum key distribution rates, considering realistic parameters for currently available or near-term technology. Our results highlight the key parameters and the limits of current satellite quantum communication links and can be used to assist the design of future missions. We also discuss the possibility of using high-altitude balloons as an alternative to satellites.

Emergent non-Markovianity and dynamical quantification of the quantum switch
arXiv:2307.01964 (2023)
V. Anand, A. G. Maity, S. Mitra, S. Bhattacharya

We investigate the dynamical aspects of the quantum switch and find a particular form of quantum memory emerging out of the switch action. We first analyse the loss of information in a general quantum evolution subjected to a quantum switch and propose a measure to quantify the switch-induced memory. We then derive an uncertainty relation between information loss and switch-induced memory. We explicitly consider the example of depolarising dynamics and show how it is affected by the action of a quantum switch. For a more detailed analysis, we consider both the control qubit and the final measurement on the control qubit as noisy and investigate the said uncertainty relation. Further, while deriving the Lindblad-type dynamics for the reduced operation of the switch action, we identify that the switch-induced memory actually leads to the emergence of non-Markovianity. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the emergent non-Markovianity can be explicitly attributed to the switch operation by comparing it with other standard measures of non-Markovianity. Our investigation thus paves the way forward to understanding the quantum switch as an emerging non-Markovian quantum memory.

Noise is resource-contextual in quantum communication
arXiv:2305.00680 (2023)
A. Nema, A. G. Maity, S. Strelchuk, D. Elkouss

Estimating the information transmission capability of a quantum channel remains one of the fundamental problems in quantum information processing. In contrast to classical channels, the information-carrying capability of quantum channels is contextual. One of the most significant manifestations of this is the superadditivity of the channel capacity: the capacity of two quantum channels used together can be larger than the sum of the individual capacities. Here, we present a one-parameter family of channels for which as the parameter increases its one-way quantum and private capacities increase while its two-way capacities decrease. We also exhibit a one-parameter family of states with analogous behavior with respect to the one- and two-way distillable entanglement and secret key. Our constructions demonstrate that noise is context dependent in quantum communication.

Low-Depth Flag-Style Syndrome Extraction for Small Quantum Error-Correction Codes
arXiv:2305.00784 (2023)
D. Bhatnagar, M. Steinberg, D. Elkouss, C. G. Almudever, S. Feld

Flag-style fault-tolerance has become a linchpin in the realization of small fault-tolerant quantum-error correction experiments. The flag protocol's utility hinges on low qubit overhead, which is typically much smaller than in other approaches. However, as in most fault-tolerance protocols, the advantages of flag-style error correction come with a tradeoff: fault tolerance can be guaranteed, but such protocols involve high-depth circuits, due to the need for repeated stabilizer measurements. Here, we demonstrate that a dynamic choice of stabilizer measurements, based on past syndromes, and the utilization of elements from the full stabilizer group, leads to flag protocols with lower-depth syndrome-extraction circuits for the [[5,1,3]] code, as well as for the Steane code when compared to the standard methods in flag fault tolerance. We methodically prove that our new protocols yield fault-tolerant lookup tables, and demonstrate them with a pseudothreshold simulation, showcasing large improvements for all protocols when compared to previously-established methods. This work opens the dialogue on exploiting the properties of the full stabilizer group for reducing circuit overhead in fault-tolerant quantum-error correction.

Near-term n to k distillation protocols using graph codes
arXiv:2303.11465 (2023)
K. Goodenough, S. de Bone, V. L. Addala, S. Krastanov, S. Jansen, D. Gijswijt, D. Elkouss

We consider here a set of near-term implementable distillation protocols. These protocols distill n to k pairs by using bilocal Clifford operations, a single round of communication and a possible final local operation depending on the observed measurement outcomes. In the case of permutationally invariant depolarizing noise on the input states, we find a correspondence between these distillation protocols and graph codes. We leverage this correspondence to find provably optimal distillation protocols in this class for several tasks. This correspondence allows us to investigate use cases for so-called non-trivial measurement syndromes. Furthermore, we detail a recipe to construct the circuit used for the distillation protocol given a graph code. We use this to find circuits of short depth and small number of two-qubit gates. We find that these found circuits perform comparable with circuits found based on black-box circuit optimization algorithms. Finally, we investigate the teleportation of encoded states and find protocols which jointly improve the rate and fidelities with respect to prior art.

Assessing non-Markovian dynamics through moments of the Choi state
arXiv:2303.03615 (2023)
B. Mallick, S. Mukherjee, A. G. Maity, A. S. Majumdar

Non-Markovian effects in open quantum system dynamics usually manifest backflow of information from the environment to the system, indicating complete-positive divisibility breaking of the dynamics. We provide a criterion for witnessing such non-Markovian dynamics exhibiting information backflow, based on the moments of Choi-matrices. The moment condition determined by the positive semi-definiteness of a matrix, does not hold for a Choi-state describing non-Markovian dynamics. We then present some explicit examples in support of our proposed non-Markovianity detection scheme. Finally, a moment based measure of non-Markovianity for unital dynamics is formulated.

Quantum repeaters: From quantum networks to the quantum internet
arXiv:2212.10820 (2022)
K. Azuma, S. E. Economou, D. Elkouss, P. Hilaire, L. Jiang, H-K. Lo, and I. Tzitrin

The quantum internet is the holy grail of quantum information processing, enabling the deployment of a broad range of quantum technologies and protocols on a global scale. However, numerous challenges exist before the quantum internet can become a reality. Perhaps the most crucial of these is the realization of a quantum repeater, an essential component in the long-distance transmission of quantum information. As the analog of a classical repeater, extender, or booster, the quantum repeater works to overcome loss and noise in the quantum channels comprising a quantum network. Here, we review the conceptual frameworks and architectures for quantum repeaters, as well as the experimental progress towards their realization. We also discuss the various near-term proposals to overcome the limits to the communication rates set by point-to-point quantum communication. Finally, we overview how quantum repeaters t within the broader challenge of designing and implementing a quantum internet.


Micro-architecture and Control Electronics Simulation of Modular Color Center-Based Quantum Computers
Proceedings of SAMOS 2023. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 14385. Springer, Cham. (2023).
F. de Ronde, M. Dreef, S. Wong, D. Elkouss

In the world of quantum computing, developments of electronics needed to control (a) qubit(s) rapidly follow one another. Consequently, (micro-)architectures need to be defined to ultimately build control logic. In this paper, we present the (micro-)architecture of a quantum computer based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds and a comprehensive simulator capable of mimicking all related (electronic) components as well as quantum operations. We demonstrate that, using our simulator (utilizing noiseless models), we can correctly emulate past (physical) experiments carried out prior to the definition of our architecture.

LIMDD A Decision Diagram for Simulation of Quantum Computing Including Stabilizer States
Quantum 7, 1108 (2023)
L. Vinkhuijzen, T. Coopmans, D. Elkouss, V. Dunjko, A. Laarman

Efficient methods for the representation and simulation of quantum states and quantum operations are crucial for the optimization of quantum circuits. Decision diagrams (DDs), a well-studied data structure originally used to represent Boolean functions, have proven capable of capturing relevant aspects of quantum systems, but their limits are not well understood. In this work, we investigate and bridge the gap between existing DD-based structures and the stabilizer formalism, an important tool for simulating quantum circuits in the tractable regime. We first show that although DDs were suggested to succinctly represent important quantum states, they actually require exponential space for certain stabilizer states. To remedy this, we introduce a more powerful decision diagram variant, called Local Invertible Map-DD (LIMDD). We prove that the set of quantum states represented by poly-sized LIMDDs strictly contains the union of stabilizer states and other decision diagram variants. Finally, there exist circuits which LIMDDs can efficiently simulate, but which cannot be efficiently simulated by two state-of-the-art simulation paradigms: the Clifford + T simulator and Matrix-Product States. By uniting two successful approaches, LIMDDs thus pave the way for fundamentally more powerful solutions for simulation and analysis of quantum computing.

Schematics of the protocol for exploiting indefinite causal structure as resource for local implementation of nonlocal operations.
Quantum superposition of causal structures as a universal resource for local implementation of nonlocal quantum operations
Physical Review A 107, 022613 (2023)
P. Ghosal, A. Ghosal, D. Das, and A. G. Maity

Spatial separation restricts the set of locally implementable quantum operations on distributed multipartite quantum systems. We propose that indefinite causal structure arising due to quantum superposition of different space-time geometries can be used as an independent universal resource for local implementation of any quantum operation on spatially distributed quantum systems. Consequently, all such quantum tasks that are not accomplishable by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) only also become locally accomplishable. We show that exploiting indefinite causal structure as the sole resource, it is possible to perfectly teleport the state of one agent's subsystem to the other distant laboratory in such a way that the agent at the distant laboratory can have access to the whole initially shared state in his or her laboratory and can perform any global quantum operation on the joint state locally. We further find that, after the teleportation process, the resource—indefinite causal structure of the space-time does not get consumed. Hence, after implementing the desired quantum operation the state of the first agent's subsystem can be teleported back to its previous laboratory using the same resource. We show that this two-way teleportation is not always necessary for locally executing all nonlocal quantum tasks that are not realizable by LOCC only. Without invoking any kind of teleportation, we present a protocol for perfect local discrimination of the set of four Bell states that exploits indefinite causal structure as the sole resource. As immediate upshots, we present some more examples of such nonlocal tasks as local discrimination of the set of states exhibiting “quantum nonlocality without entanglement” and activation of bound entangled states that are also achievable by our proposed protocol incorporating indefinite causal structure as a resource.


Simulated performance of GHZ creation
Robust quantum-network memory based on spin qubits in isotopically engineered diamond
npj Quantum Information 8, 122 (2022)
C. E. Bradley, S. W. de Bone, P. F. W. Möller, S. Baier, M. J. Degen, S. J. H. Loenen, H. P. Bartling, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, R. Hanson, D. Elkouss and T. H. Taminiau

Quantum networks can enable quantum communication and modular quantum computation. A powerful approach is to use multi-qubit nodes that provide quantum memory and computational power. Nuclear spins associated with defects in diamond are promising qubits for this role. However, dephasing during optical entanglement distribution hinders scaling to larger systems. Here, we show that a 13C-spin quantum memory in isotopically engineered diamond is robust to the optical link operation of a nitrogen-vacancy centre. The memory lifetime is improved by two orders-of-magnitude upon the state-of-the-art, surpassing reported times for entanglement distribution. Additionally, we demonstrate that the nuclear-spin state can survive ionisation and recapture of the nitrogen-vacancy electron. Finally, we use simulations to show that combining this memory with previously demonstrated entanglement links and gates can enable key network primitives, such as deterministic non-local two-qubit gates, paving the way for test-bed quantum networks capable of investigating complex algorithms and error correction.

Quantum paper distillation protocol
Enumerating all bilocal Clifford distillation protocols through symmetry reduction
Quantum 6, 715 (2022)
S. Jansen, K. Goodenough, S. de Bone, D. Gijswijt, and D. Elkouss

Entanglement distillation is an essential building block in quantum communication protocols. Here, we study the class of near-term implementable distillation protocols that use bilocal Clifford operations followed by a single round of communication. We introduce tools to enumerate and optimise over all protocols for up to n=5 (not necessarily equal) Bell-diagonal states using a commodity desktop computer. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetries of the input states, we find all protocols for up to n=8 copies of a Werner state. For the latter case, we present circuits that achieve the highest fidelity with perfect operations and no decoherence. These circuits have modest depth and number of two-qubit gates. Our results are based on a correspondence between distillation protocols and double cosets of the symplectic group, and improve on previously known protocols.

Improved analytical bounds on delivery times of long-distance entanglement
Phys. Rev. A 105, 012608 (2022), editor's suggestion
T. Coopmans, S. Brand, and D. Elkouss

The ability to distribute high-quality entanglement between remote parties is a necessary primitive for many quantum communication applications. A large range of schemes for realizing the long-distance delivery of remote entanglement has been proposed, for both bipartite and multipartite entanglement. For assessing the viability of these schemes, knowledge of the time at which entanglement is delivered is crucial. Specifically, if the communication task requires multiple remote-entangled quantum states and these states are generated at different times by the scheme, the earlier states will need to wait and thus their quality will decrease while being stored in an (imperfect) memory. For the remote-entanglement delivery schemes which are closest to experimental reach, this time assessment is challenging, as they consist of nondeterministic components such as probabilistic entanglement swaps. For many such protocols even the average time at which entanglement can be distributed is not known exactly, in particular when they consist of feedback loops and forced restarts. In this work, we provide improved analytical bounds on the average and on the quantiles of the completion time of entanglement distribution protocols in the case that all network components have success probabilities lower bounded by a constant. A canonical example of such a protocol is a nested quantum repeater scheme which consists of heralded entanglement generation and entanglement swaps. For this scheme specifically, our results imply that a common approximation to the mean entanglement distribution time, the 3-over-2 formula, is in essence an upper bound to the real time. Our results rely on a novel connection with reliability theory.