Students are introduced to the concepts of stress and strain, and discuss conservation laws and constitutive equations. We derive the Navier equations of linear elasticity, introduce the Airy stress-function method, and solve problems to illustrate the behavior of cracks, dislocations, and force-induced singularities in applications relating to materials science, structural engineering, geophysics and other disciplines.
(1) Mathematical Preliminaries:
- Summation convention, Cartesian, spherical, and cylindrical coordinates.
- Vectors, tensors, linear operators, functionals.
- Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of second-order symmetric tensors, eigenvalues as extrema of the quadratic form.
- Fields, vector and tensor calculus.
(2) Stress, Strain, Energy, and Constitutive Relations:
- Cauchy stress tensor, traction, small strain tensor, compatibility.
- Strain energy, strain energy function, symmetries, elastic modulii.
(3) Elasticity and the Mechanics of Plastic Deformation:
- Navier equations, problems with spherical symmetry and problems with cylindrical symmetry (tunnels, cavities, centers of dilatation).
- Anti-plane shear. Plane stress, plane strain.
- The Airy stress-function method in polar and Cartesian coordinates.
- Superposition and Green's functions.
- Problems without a characteristic lengthscale.
- Flamant's problem, Cerruti's problem, Hertz's problem.
- Load-induced versus geometry-induced singularities (unbounded versus bounded energies).
- Problems with an axis of symmetry.
- Disclinations, dislocations, Burgers vector, energetics; relation to plastic deformation in crystalline solids.
(4) Fracture Mechanics:
- The Williams expansion, crack-tip fields and opening displacements via the Airy stress-function method (modes I, II) and via the Navier equations (mode III), crack-tip-field exponents as eigenvalues, stress intensity factors.
- Energy principles in fracture mechanics, load control and displacement control.
- Energy release rate and its relation to the stress intensity factors, specific fracture energy, size effect, stability. The Griffith crack and the Zener-Stroh crack. Anticracks.
(5) Possible Additional Topics (if time allows):
- Elasticity and variational calculus, nonconvex potentials, two-phase strain fields, frustration, microstructures.
- Stress waves in solids, P, S, and R waves, waveguides, dispersion relations, geophysical applications.
- Dislocation-based fracture mechanics, the Bilby-Cotterell-Swindon solution, small- and large-scale yielding, T-stress effects, crack-tip dislocation emission, the elastic enclave model.
- Deterministic versus statistical size effects in quasibrittle materials.
- Vlasov beam theory, coupled bending-torsional instabilities.
- Dynamic forms of instability, nonconservative forces, fluttering (Hopf bifurcation).
Prerequisite is A104 Vector and Tensor Calculus