Speed, accuracy and dissipation in sub-cellular systems

Biological functions at the sub-cellular level are often performed with remarkable accuracy and speed, despite the presence of thermal fluctuations. We are interested in understand the physical limits to the performance of these processes in terms of speed, error and dissipation. We are also studying specific enzymes such as DNA polymerases and ribosomes, to understand whether they operate close to these limits.

Selected recent publications​
  • P. Sartori and S. Pigolotti. “Thermodynamics of error correction”. Phys. Rev. X, 5:041039, 2015.
  • P. Sartori and S. Pigolotti. “Kinetic vs. energetic discrimination in biological copying”. Phys. Rev. Lett., 110:188101, 2013.

Population dynamics in complex environments

Ecosystems display a remarkable degree of spatial organization. The impact of their spatial dynamics on biodiversity can be studied by exploiting analogies with non-equilibrium physical systems. We are interested in predicting biodiversity patterns in ecosystems characterized by a complex structure, such as communities of microorganisms inhabiting marine ecosystems. We are also exploring how other classic ecological and evolutionary mechanisms, such as the possibility of adopting a "bet-hedging" strategy against a fluctuating environment, are modified by the presence of spatially-structured environments.

Selected recent publications​
  • S. Pigolotti, M. Cencini, D. Molina, M.A. Muñoz, "Stochastic spatial models in ecology: a statistical physics approach", J. Stat. Phys 172.1, 44-73, 2018.
  • S. Pigolotti and R. Benzi. “Selective advantage of diffusing faster”. Phys. Rev. Lett., 112:188102, 2014.
  • S. Pigolotti, R. Benzi, M. H. Jensen, and D. R. Nelson. Population genetics in compressible flows. Phys. Rev. Lett., 108:128102, 2012.

Binding specificity of transcription factors

Many transcription factors optimize the search of targets along the DNA by the so-called facilitated diffusion mechanism, i.e. by alternating between 3D diffusion in the cytosol and sliding along the DNA chain. By combining theoretical, computational, and bioinformatic studies we are studying how the "genetic context", i.e. the regions of DNA around a given target, can influence the kinetic of target search in organisms ranging from bacteria to eukaryotes.

Selected recent publications
  • M. Cencini and S. Pigolotti. “Energetic funnel facilitates facilitated diffusion”. Nucleic Acid Research 46(2), 558-567, 2018.

Stochastic thermodynamics

Stochastic thermodynamics studies non-equilibrium properties of mesoscopic physical systems. Fluctuation relations are fundamental results in stochastic thermodynamics. They govern non-equilibrium behavior of a vast class of systems and find application in experimentally measuring free energy differences by means of non-equilibrium manipulation protocols. In recent years, we have been discovering several additional universal properties of mesoscopic systems. We are interested in characterizing these novel properties and organize them into a unified theory. 

Selected recent publications​
  • A. Barato and S. Pigolotti. É. Roldán, I.A. Martínez, S. Pigolotti, "Arcsine laws in stochastic thermodynamics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 090601, 2018.
  • S. Pigolotti, I. Neri, É. Roldán, F. Jülicher, "Generic Properties of Stochastic Entropy Production", Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 140604, 2017.